Apply Now


Knowledge At MET

Knowledge At MET

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

The 5 most prevalent diseases in India Contributing to highest mortality rate are

CVD would be the largest cause of death & disability in India as per WHO report 2012.

Since the last decade it has been of great concern that people are suffering from disease caused due to changing and hectic lifestyle. In olden days people used to die of communicable diseases. However, the trend has changed. CVD kill an estimate of 17 million people worldwide each year 25% of deaths in age group of 25-69 years occurs because of CVD. About 32.8% of populace in urban areas and 22.9% populas in rural areas in India die because of CVD.A trend has emerged particularly since 2000 in which it was found that fast food has increased incidence of CVD.

Types of CVD

The top five CVD having the highest mortality rate are-

  • Coronary artery disease-It is the blockage of coronary artery, [i.e. the artery suppling blood to heart] due to deposition of an atheriosclerotic plaque. Thus, the heart starves for blood and oxygen, causing death of myocytes in
  • Hypertension (HT)-HT is a medical term for high B.P. When the systolic B.P is higher than 140mm/Hg and the diastolic P above 90mm/Hg HT results. HT increases an individual’s risk of heart attack and stroke
  • Arrhythmias- Arrhythmias means abnormal heart Heart rate may become too fast or too slow or may even skip beats. Arrhythmias can lead to heart attack / stroke.
  • Myocardial infarction (MI) - MI occurs if the blood flow to a part which is blocked long enough so that myocytecs Atherosclerotic plaque may be responsible for MI. Chest pain is the most common symptom of HI.
  • Stroke- A Stroke occurs when there is blockage of artery suppling blood to the brain. Thus, the brain is deprived of blood and oxygen and it begins to


Causes of CVD:

  • Unhealthy diet
  • Physical inactivity
  • Tobacco use
  • Alcoholism
  • Diabetes
  • Stress
  • Some OTC medications, dietary supplements etc. Behavioral/lifestyle risk factors are responsible for about 80%of Probability of occurrence of CVD in Men vs. Women:



  • Blood lipids-Before menopause estrogen maintains low level LDL and high level of HDL in women. After menopause women have high concentration of cholesterol than do men. Therefore, there is increased risk of CVD in women after
  • DIABETES-It also has added risk factors of obesity, hypertension, high Therefore, Although women usually develop heart disease about 10 years later than men, diabetes erases that advantage. In women who’ve already had a heart attack, diabetes doubles the risk for a second heart attack and increases the risk for heart failure.
  • SMOKING-Women who smoke are twice as likely to have a heart attack as male Women are also less likely to succeed in quitting. Moreover, women may not find nicotine replacement as effective, because the menstrual cycle affects tobacco withdrawal symptoms and they may get inconsistent results with antismoking medications.


Men suffer from the disease at a younger age because they tend to have higher blood pressure, higher cholesterol, and they are more likely to be smokers than women.

CVD in Youth

Junk food causes one third of heart attacks. Junk food is No.1 cause of CVD in youth between 20-35.

Junk food #1: Pizza

Cheese on pizza is No.1 source of saturated fat. An extra slice of cheese may contain as much as 2/3rd of one’s daily saturated fat limit.

Tips to lighten up your pizza:

  • Top it with veggies instead of pepperoni &
  • Say no to bread sticks & yes to And here you are on way to preventing heart disease.

Junk food # 2: Fast food

Saturated food and Na load, Trans fat, in fast food, raise CDC & lowers HDL cholesterol. However manufacturers incorporate such ingredients because they have long shelf life. The FDA recommends not more than 1.11gm of transfat/day.

 Junk food # 3: Soda

Soft drinks are the biggest source of sugar in our diet.

Guzzling large quantity of soda can lead to increase in blood sugar, increase insulin resistance and lost of elasticity of arteries.

A better beverage when you want caffeine is unsweetened iced tea or coffee. If its carbonation you crave for, try Seltzer with fruit juice and a twist of time.

 5 medications free strategies to prevent CVD

You can avoid heart problems in future by adopting healthy lifestyle today.

  • Quit smoking and Nicotine in cigarette causes narrowing of blood vessels and thus increases HR & B.P carbon monoxide (CO) in cigarette displaces some oxygen in Hemoglobin.This increases B.P by forcing heart to pump more blood to meet Oxygen needs of body.
  • Exercise for 30 mins on most days of Physical activity reduces weight, stress. Activities such as gardening, housekeeping, using stairs instead of an elevator, taking your pet for a walk benefits your CVS. Exercise may not be strenuous to achieve benefits. Instead increase the duration and frequency of your work out.
  • Eat heart healthy Eating a special diet called a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) can protect your heart.DASH includes low fat, low cholesterol and low salt food, diet rich in fruits , veggies , beans food containing omega-3 fatty acids like fishes – Salmon and Mackerel , flax seed oil , walnut – soyabean –canola oil benefits your heart.
  • Body weight

Calculate your BMI which considers your weight and determines the % of body fat BMI=Weight in Kilograms / (Height in Meters )2BMI of more than 25 is associated with CVD.

  • Get regular health B.P optimal B.P 120/80 mm of Hg.


Tags: MET Institute of Pharmacy