LAB ON A CHIP (LOC) is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only few millimeters to achieve automation and high throughput screening.
BioMEMS can be defined in general as “devices or systems constructed using techniques inspired from micro fabrication that are used for processing, delivery, manipulation, analysis, or construction of biological and chemical entities.
BioMEMS devices are similar to LOC, typically focusing on MEMS (Micro –Electro-Mechanical systems) with biological applications.
LAB ON A CHIP (Also known as micro total analytical systems or microTAS) designed to miniaturize analytical or bioanalytical techniques and integrates them into a micro fabricated format.
Techniques such as chemical separation (electrophoresis, chromatography) etc or immunoassays are incorporated into micro fabricated systems (typically glass, silicon or polymer) with a goal of increasing performance, minimizing reagent requirement, and decreasing cost.
LOC device is use to capture, sort, culture, or study cells, study interfacial phenomena & produce Pharmaceuticals. Advantages such as reduced costs, low sample volumes, and ease of use allow LOC Technology to be used extensively in point- of – care diagnostics in less – developed countries.
(Biological microelectromechanical systems)
Application of BioMEMS: Micro and nano systems for genomics, proteomics, drug – delivery analysis, molecular assembly, tissue engineering, biosensor development , nanoscale imaging, etc diagnostics to micro-fluidics, systems for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and implantable systems.
Biological samples can be analyzed in a very small area with considerably reduced cost and time, by forming micro- fluidic channels on silicon substrate and combining them with on chip electronics.
Some examples for such applications include on-chip electrophoresis systems, polymerized-chain reaction (PCR) units, DNA sequencing chips, and complex lab-on-a-chip devices.
There are currently various BioMEMS related projects going on at METU-MEMS, including DNA electrophoresis systems, dielectrophoresis chips for cell separation, gravimetric sensors for cancer cell detection, microvalves and pumps for lab-on-a-chip systems, and electrochemical sensors for bacteria
Health Applications Of Loc Technology Are Given Below :
It can be estimated that over a decade, biotechnological, medical and chemical analysis will move from room-sized laboratories to microchip based laboratories, housed in hand-held, portable readout devices.